Peanut allergy tolerance treatment may increase the risk of anaphylaxis

first_imgBy Sally Robertson, B.Sc.Apr 26 2019Reviewed by Kate Anderton, B.Sc. (Editor)Treating children who have a peanut allergy by gradually exposing them to increasing levels of peanut extract may actually increase their risk of allergic attacks, instead of inducing tolerance, warn researchers from McMaster University.The team found that efforts to desensitize children with peanut oral immunotherapy resulted in three times as many allergic reactions in the “real- world,” compared with peanut avoidance.Children who tried the desensitization method also had more severe reactions, including potentially fatal anaphylactic reactions that required administration of life-saving adrenaline.More than six million people are affected by food allergies across Europe and North America, most of whom are children. While children often grow out of the more common egg or milk allergies by the age of ten, a peanut allergy can persist into adulthood and be a lifelong problem.What is oral immunotherapy?Previous research has suggested that oral immunotherapy, where allergic children are gradually exposed to increasing levels of peanut extract, can desensitize a child to peanuts, reducing their risk of anaphylaxis.Researchers say that despite an increased risk of reactions during the initial exposure phase, the ultimate benefits could last a lifetime. Findings from a study last year provided the most convincing evidence to date that the exposure method can stop peanut ingestion triggering a fatal reaction.However, studies assessing the effectiveness of oral immunotherapy measure the treatment’s success by whether a person can pass a supervised food challenge. Dr. Derek Chu (McMaster University) and colleagues point out that this cannot serve as a predictive measure of a person’s future risk in the real world.The treatment may not work in the ‘real-world’Through the analysis of findings from 12 trials, Chu and team questioned whether the results of desensitization studies can be replicated in the real world and have raised concerns about the safety of such approaches. The research was published in The Lancet. Oral immunotherapy is an emerging experimental treatment for peanut allergy, but its benefits and harms are unclear. We systematically reviewed the efficacy and safety of oral immunotherapy versus allergen avoidance or placebo (no oral immunotherapy) for peanut allergy.”Dr. Derek Chu Safer peanut allergy treatment approaches and rigorous randomised controlled trials that evaluate patient-important outcomes are needed.”center_img The team pooled data available for more than 1,000 children (aged an average of nine years) who had participated in oral immunotherapy trials and whose progress had been followed for one year.“Our study synthesizes all randomized clinical trials comparing peanut oral immunotherapy to no immunotherapy in order to generate the highest quality evidence to inform decision-making,” says Chu.The analysis found that 22.2% of children who underwent oral immunotherapy therapy experienced anaphylactic reactions, compared with 7% who avoided exposure to peanuts.Serious allergic reactions that led to vomiting, hives, abdominal pain, wheezing and asthma were all increased, including potentially fatal attacks where life-saving adrenaline needed to be given.The findings favor avoidance of overall current forms of oral immunotherapy and suggest that children who avoid peanuts altogether have fewer attacks overall.‘More allergic and adverse reactions’Chu adds that although the exposure method can achieve the aim of desensitization, “this outcome does not translate into achieving the clinical and patient-desired aim of less allergic reactions and anaphylaxis over time.”Instead, the outcome is the opposite, he says, with “more allergic and adverse reactions with oral immunotherapy compared with avoidance or placebo.”Chu emphasizes that the study does not denounce current research into oral immunotherapy, but that the method should be more carefully considered, with improvements in safety made and measures of success being aligned with patients’ wishes.last_img read more

Study highlights disparity in providing mental health services across EU countries

first_imgReviewed by Alina Shrourou, B.Sc. (Editor)Apr 29 2019Access to inpatient care for young people with mental health issues varies significantly across Europe, with mental health services providing up to fifty times more beds depending upon the country you live in.The UK is 18thout of 28 countries in Europe for the number of inpatient beds available per 100,000 young people, despite having the largest number of services dedicated to child and adolescent mental health.Research led by Professor Swaran Singh of Warwick Medical School has highlighted the disparity in mental health service provision across the twenty-eight EU countries. Researchers are calling for better national policies from EU countries that standardize services and improve access to mental health services for children and adolescents experiencing mental illness.The figures are among findings to be presented at an event on 29 April to mark the completion of the five-year MILESTONE project led by the University of Warwick and involving research teams in 7 other countries, which aims to improve transitions for young people from child (CAMHS) to adult mental health services across Europe.It is the first comprehensive evaluation of children’s mental health services in Europe and examines young people’s experiences in transitioning to adult mental health services for the first time.As part of the project, which received 6 million euro in funding from the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme, researchers conducted a survey of CAMHS provision in all twenty-eight countries in the EU. The survey highlighted that the number of pediatric beds available, a measure of the capacity of those services, varied significantly country to country. While Sweden had the least with 1.2 beds per 100,000 young people, Germany had the most with 64 beds per 100,000 young people – over fifty times as many.It has highlighted the lack of consistency in the management of children and young people with mental health issues across Europe with significant variations in how services are delivered. For example, the UK has a relatively low 9.4 beds per 100,000 young people, but has by far the largest number of public CAMHS (939).Mental health issues are on the rise in young people.One in ten 5 to 16 year-olds are affected by a mental health issue and 50% of mental health problems are established by the age of 14.For most young people, reaching the milestone birthday that marks the start of adulthood is a celebratory affair. However, for those relying on the support of CAMHS it can mean uncertainty and possibly the loss of the support that has helped them so far. In the majority of European countries, when service users reach a certain age – 18 in the UK, for example – they are no longer eligible to use children’s services and are instead moved to adult services.Related StoriesInternational study aims to more accurately describe mental health disordersState lawmakers eye federal dollars to boost mental health counseling by peersOnline training program helps managers to support employees’ mental health needsThis transition has little clarity. The findings indicate that while a number of young people move on to adult mental health services with minimal disruption, a large proportion are discharged without guidance on how to continue their support, have to take on the burden of convincing adult services to accept them, experiencing long waiting times for appointments and having to repeatedly explain their problems to different services.Warwick Medical School’s Professor Swaran Singh, Project Coordinator for the MILESTONE project, said: “The MILESTONE project is a genuine milestone in youth mental health research since for the first time it shows the nature and magnitude of the problem of transition from child to adult mental health services, something that has been often discussed but never quantified and understood in such a detailed and nuanced manner. We tried one way of bridging the transition divide through our managed transition trial. There may be other ways and perhaps the best way forward is to try a few models and test them for long term outcomes in young people with emerging mental health problems.”With around a tenth of young people likely to experience mental health issues, it’s a matter of concern that the approach to child mental health varies so dramatically across Europe. Our youth deserve better mental health care than they currently receive.”Findings from the MILESTONE project will be presented at a public dissemination event on 29 April at Church House, Westminster. Attendees will get to hear from young people and sector-leading UK and international speakers, gain a better understanding of wider issues linked with transition and discuss the next steps in shaping policy, service provision and research. It will also feature the premiere of a new short film ‘I am the Loneliness of 4am’, which captures how young people feel when they face problems accessing care at the transition boundary.Source: https://warwick.ac.uk/newsandevents/pressreleases/inpatient_care_forlast_img read more

Tiny Fighting Worms Make One of the Loudest Sounds in the Ocean

first_img 13 Extremely Weird Animal Feet The 10 Strangest Animal Discoveries Headbutting Tiny Worms Are Really, Really LoudThis rapid strike produces a loud ‘pop’ comparable to those made by snapping shrimps, one of the most intense biological sounds measured at sea.Volume 0%Press shift question mark to access a list of keyboard shortcutsKeyboard Shortcutsplay/pauseincrease volumedecrease volumeseek forwardsseek backwardstoggle captionstoggle fullscreenmute/unmuteseek to %SPACE↑↓→←cfm0-9接下来播放Better Bug Sprays?01:33 facebook twitter 发邮件 reddit 链接https://www.livescience.com/65945-tiny-worms-emit-loud-noise.html?jwsource=cl已复制直播00:0000:3500:35Your Recommended Playlist01:33Better Bug Sprays?04:24Sperm Whale Befriends Underwater Robot00:29Robot Jumps Like a Grasshopper, Rolls Like a Ball01:08Why Do French Fries Taste So Bad When They’re Cold?01:09Robots to the Rescue02:27Robotic Arms关闭 Tiny, feisty worms that live off the coast of Japan fight by headbutting each other — and they aren’t quiet about it. During these feuds, the worms emit one of the loudest sounds in the ocean, according to a new study. The source of the underwater hullabaloo is a nearly transparent segmented worm called the Leocratides kimuraorum, which lives inside sponges 279 to 554 feet (85 to 169 meters) deep off the coast of Japan. [The 12 Weirdest Animal Discoveries]Advertisement These wigglies are just a tad more than an inch (29 millimeters) long and have lengthy tentacles and a big mouth (literally). These seemingly quiet creatures revealed their true nature under the spotlight in the lab. A group of researchers used an instrument called a hydrophone to record 15 pops that were emitted from three kimuraorums as they were fighting. In a marine feud researchers dub “mouth-fighting,” the worms approached each other headfirst with their mouths open. During such encounters, the worms’ pharynx muscles expand rapidly, creating a cavitation bubble that collapses and produces a loud “pop” while the worms launch into each other. The researchers found that these pops can reach 157 decibels in the water (which is a different measurement than decibels in the air). From right next to the water tank, the pops sounded like humans snapping their fingers, lead author Goto Ryutaro, an assitant professor at Kyoto University told Live Science. “Though they probably sound louder if you hear them in the water.” The worms are as loud as snapping shrimps, which are one of the biggest noisemakers in the ocean, the authors wrote. What’s more, they found that these worms did not make any noise when simply disturbed, they only did so when they were fighting. They “may use mouth-fighting to defend territory or living chambers from other worms,” the authors wrote July 8 in the journal Current Biology. “A loud pop may be a byproduct of the rapid mouth attack, but it may also aid intraspecific communication.” A loud noise could somehow determine the victor of the fight or even reveal the whereabouts of nearby worms, they wrote. Originally published on Live Science. Strange Love: 10 Animals with Truly Weird Courtship Ritualslast_img read more

3 killed in fire at Delhi factory

first_imgPublished on COMMENTS SHARE Two women and a teenager were killed in a massive fire at a two-storeyed hardware factory in Delhi on Saturday morning, police said. The blaze broke out around 9 am at the factory in Shahdara’s Jhilmil Industrial Area, which houses several industrial units, and 31 fire tenders were rushed to the spot, the Delhi Fire Services said. The blaze started from the first floor of the building and engulfed the whole structure, the police said. According to the supervisor of the factory, Pradeep, around 60 workers were present inside the factory that usually opens at around 9 in the morning. Cartons kept inside the factory, involved in manufacturing and packaging of taps, caught fire quickly and aided in the spread of the fire, he said. Pradeep said most of the workers managed to escape the factory. “But the three victims were present on the second floor and could not come downstairs as it was filled with smoke,” he said. A fire department official said five people were trapped on the second floor of the building and two of them survived. A fire personnel also sustained injuries during the rescue operation. Deputy Commissioner of Police (Shahdara) Meghna Yadav said two women — Manju Devi (50), Sangeeta Devi (46) — and a youth, Shoaib Ali (19) died in incident. The victims may have died due to asphyxiation as there were no major burn injuries, the police said. Delhi Chief Minister Arvind Kejriwal visited the site with Industries Minister Satyendar Jain. Kejriwal said a probe would be conducted to ascertain the reason behind the incident and action would be taken against anyone not following fire norms. He announced an ex gratia of Rs 5 lakh for the kin of the deceased. SHARE SHARE EMAIL July 13, 2019 fire COMMENT Fire personnel seen dousing the fire which broke out at one of the factory at the Jhilmil Industrial Area in New Delhi on Saturday, July 13, 2019. – Photo: R V Moorthylast_img read more